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Gelenium

Gelenium


Helenium is a bright, simple and very beautiful flower from the Asteraceae family. There are more than 30 species of this plant. The birthplace of Gelenium is considered to be Central and North America. It has gained immense popularity among the florist for its simultaneous combination of simplicity and beauty. The article will talk about the rules for planting helenium, about growing and caring for it in the open field.

Description of the helenium plant

Gelenium is a perennial flower that can grow up to 1.5 m in height, and sometimes even higher. The stems are straight below, and branch up to the top. The leaves are lanceolate, arranged in a regular order. Baskets can be single or collected in thyroid-shaped inflorescences. The flowers are ligulate at the edges, and tubular in the middle. They can be orange, brown, yellow, red or purple. The fruit is a cylindrical achene.

Growing helenium from seeds

Sowing seeds

Most often, helenium is propagated in a vegetative way (dividing a bush and a leaf rosette). But there are those who prefer the seed method of reproduction. This method is suitable for those florists who are accustomed to keeping the growth and development of the plant completely under their control.

You can plant seeds both for seedlings (in late February-early March), and directly in open ground (in autumn). Seeds planted in the autumn during the winter cold period will undergo natural stratification and in the spring only the stronger and stronger ones will germinate.

Seedlings of helenium

Pour soil into prepared seedling containers. Ready-made soil for seedlings of flowering plants is perfect as a substrate; it can be easily purchased at absolutely any store for summer residents and gardeners. It is necessary to evenly distribute the seeds over the surface of the soil, then carefully close the containers with polyethylene and put them in a cold place for at least a month. After the containers need to be taken out, put in a warm, well-lit place, where the temperature is about 18-20 degrees.

When the seedlings have two true leaves, they must be planted in separate pots. To do this, you can choose peat pots, during transplanting they can be planted in open ground along with the seedlings, this will most likely not destroy the root system of the plant.

Planting helenium in open ground

An excellent time for planting gelenium in open ground is the second decade of May-first half of June. At this time, the soil has already warmed up enough, and the spring frosts will probably not return. The place for planting gelenium should be in the sunny part of the garden, you can also plant a flower in partial shade. The soil needs nutritious and light, neutral acidity and well-drained. Also, before planting, the soil should be thoroughly dug up, compost and pits should be prepared.

Gelenium must be carefully removed from the pots (if they are not peaty!) And placed in a container with water, this will saturate the root system with moisture. After the seedlings need to be planted in open ground, sprinkle with soil and carefully mulch the area around the plant using peat or humus. A flower planted in this way will delight with its flowering only after two years. It should be remembered that this method is absolutely not suitable for honeycomb helenium, since varietal characteristics will not be preserved with the seed method of reproduction.

Caring for helenium in the garden

Watering

It is not difficult to care for helenium, the main thing is to know some of the features of its cultivation. The plant does not tolerate dry soil, therefore, it is necessary to regularly water abundantly, but in no case allowing the soil to become waterlogged and stagnant. If, after planting seedlings in open ground, the soil around the plant was not thoroughly mulched, then after each watering it is imperative to carefully loosen it and remove weeds.

Top dressing and fertilizers

Fertilizers should be applied 3 times per season, this applies to both mineral and organic fertilizing. The first portion of fertilizer should be applied at the end of May after planting helenium seedlings in open ground. A solution of urea should be added (20 g of urea per 10 l of water), potassium sulfate and organic matter. The second top dressing should be applied during the active flowering period. To do this, you need to dilute Agricola-7 or Agricola-fantasy with a liquid mullein (1 liter) in 10 liters of water. The third feeding is needed in the second decade of October. Superphosphate and potassium sulfate (20 g of each mineral fertilizer) must be diluted in 10 liters of water.

In order for more buds to be tied in the helenium, it is necessary during the period of their active growth to carefully treat the plant with a special agent that regulates the process of bud growth. As a regulator, you can use "Bud" (10 g of the product for 10 liters of water). In order for the bush to branch well, to bloom for a long time and abundantly, it is necessary to regularly remove wilted inflorescences and dry leaves, and also gently pinch the upper part of young shoots by a few centimeters.

Transfer

Helenium also needs to be planted every 2-3 years. During transplantation, you can propagate the plant using one of the types of vegetative propagation - bush division.

Gelenium after flowering

It is possible to collect seeds from helenium, but it is not a fact that they will sprout and grow exactly the branches that you want to see. Since such seeds do not retain varietal characteristics and germinate poorly. Therefore, for planting, it is best to use purchased seed or propagate helenium by vegetative methods. After the flowering period is over, it is necessary to cut off the wilted parts of the plant, leaving 10 cm from the ground. Then it is necessary to cover the plant with a thick layer of moss, sawdust or dry foliage, and then also with a covering material. Such preparation will help the plant to easily survive the winter cold and not suffer even from severe frosts.

Diseases and pests

Gelenium is quite resistant to diseases and attacks of harmful insects, but sometimes it can still be attacked by chrysanthemum nematodes, which damage leaves and flower buds. Due to such damage, they dry out and become brownish brown. In order to get rid of these harmful insects and prevent their reproduction, it is necessary to cut out the affected parts of the flower and burn it outside the garden, as well as carefully treat the plants with special preparations and add ground sulfur or slaked lime to the soil.

If you follow all the rules for caring for helenium, then no insect attacks and diseases will be afraid of him.

Types and varieties of helenium

It was said above that there are more than 30 species of this plant, but only 5 are grown in culture. It is about these 5 species that will be discussed in more detail.

Helenium bigelovii - this type is the least popular. It can grow up to eighty centimeters in height. The stems are straight. Lanceolate leaves. The flowers are about 6 cm in diameter. The middle is tubular and the root is fraught with shade, and the reed petals are yellow. The flowering period begins in early June and ends in early August.

Spring Helenium (Helenium vernalis) - stems are straight, can grow up to 1 m in height, and sometimes more. The leaves are grayish green. The inflorescences are solitary on long peduncles, about 6-8 cm in diameter and have a yellow tint. Bloom lasts from June to July.

Helenium autumnale - This species is the most popular and most widespread species. It is often used to breed new varieties. It grows up to 1.5 m in height, and sometimes even more. Stems are tall, strong, woody after flowering. Leaves are jagged along the edge. Flowers are collected in thyroid inflorescences. The reed petals are yellow or yellow-red, and the tubular center is yellow-brown. Flowering lasts for two months. It starts in July and ends in September.

Helenium hybrid (Helenium x hybridum) - This species is considered to be a combined species, since it includes all varieties of uncertain origin. More popular varieties of this type:

  • Gelenium Rubintsverg (Ruby Gnome). This variety is very popular. The bush grows up to 65 cm in height. The flowers are ruby-colored. Flowering begins at the end of July.
  • Cockade. The bush can grow up to 1.5 meters. The flowers have an interesting color, the reed petals are yellow-red, the color smoothly passes from the tips of the petals to the middle. The tubular center is yellow-brown. Flowering begins in August and lasts for almost 1.5 months.
  • Moerheim Beauty. A very popular variety. It has a peculiarity, when the flowers bloom, they can be red, yellow, copper or golden, but when fully open all the multi-colored flowers will turn red-brown. In height, the bushes of this variety grow from 1 m to 1.2 m, rarely reach 1.5 m. Flowering begins in July and lasts almost until mid-November.

GELENIUM: Transplant and division


Cephalophora aromatic (Gelenium): yellow balls with strawberry aroma

Cephalophora fragrant (lat. Cephalophora aromatica) is rarely found in the personal plots of our country, but in vain. Cephalophora smells of strawberries more than strawberries themselves, therefore they are actively used in cooking to add smell and taste to dishes.

In cephalophora, all parts of the plant smell like fragrant strawberries: leaves, stems, inflorescences of a radical yellow color. In general, the cephalophora not only pleases the sense of smell, but also the sight - the plant is not ashamed to plant in a conspicuous place in order to admire the yellow balls, similar to an overgrown dandelion.

In Europe, it is believed that the cephalophora smells not of strawberries, but of pineapple, therefore it is called not strawberry, but pineapple grass.

The essential oils of cephalophora flowers are used in beverages and baked goods, perfumery and folk medicine. Cephalophora is also useful as a source of vitamins B and C.

Cephalophora inflorescences are an extremely strong flavoring agent that must be used with caution. In large doses, a bitter aftertaste appears in dishes. The whole inflorescence is enough to provide itself with seasoning for a whole year.


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In flower beds, you can most often find autumn helenium. This charming flower has a pleasant aroma, blooms profusely and for a long time until the very frost.

Helenium is frost-resistant, although the aerial part and rhizome die in winter, the buds of renewal remain alive. In autumn, young rosettes with their own root system are formed from them, which can easily endure frosty winters if enough precipitation falls. A snowless winter can destroy them, so the plants are prepared for wintering, covered with lutrasil or mulched with sawdust just before frost.

In the spring, each rosette produces an independent plant on its own roots located in close proximity. The plant is toxic, the leaves are bitter. Gelenium is resistant to diseases, it is affected by:

  • chrysanthemum nematode - diseased plants are smaller than healthy ones, flowers, buds and shoots are deformed, crushed. The plant is removed and necessarily burned, since nematodes - parasitizing round microscopic worms, are also dangerous as carriers of viral plant diseases
  • slugs - they eat young leaves that have not accumulated enough bitterness, I reduce the decorativeness of plantings.

  1. Watering - high water demand
  2. rejuvenation of plantings - for the prevention of diseases, transplanted after 4 years
  3. top dressing - it is enough to feed at the beginning of flowering.

In garden culture, heleniums are grown:

  • Chupa - blooms in June with yellow flowers with a diameter of 10 cm
  • Bigelow - begins to bloom at the end of June, flowers are yellow with a brown heart, large in size
  • spring - early flowering, yellow flowers appear in May, flowering continues all summer.
Gelenium ChupaGelenium Bigelow


Plant Sunflower

The beauty of a sunflower is that, with its rich yellow color, it creates a sunny mood in the garden on the gloomiest autumn day. Terry flowers of a sunflower Teddy bear last until frost. Gradually cutting off the baskets that have already faded, you can admire the Teddy Bear from July to October. This variety is the most famous of the terry sunflowers. Its height is only 60-80 cm, the bush branches strongly, opening new buds on the lateral shoots. The yellow, thick terry heads look very cute and really resemble a plush toy. Floristan has beautiful bicolor petals, burgundy with a golden tip. The inflorescences are large, up to 15 cm. On a plant 90 cm high, they look very impressive. Huge flowers in the Kid Staff variety. On a bush less than 80 cm tall, there are several flowers up to 25 cm in size at once. The petals and the middle of the flowers are golden yellow, such a bush immediately attracts attention. The record holder for flowering is the Sonya variety. The bush is low, less than a meter. One bush simultaneously reveals two dozen real yellow sunflowers, only small ones with a brown center. The variety is very decorative, it is used as a tub culture. Growing sunflowers in pots is not only fashionable, but also convenient. This little sun can be transferred to any corner of the garden, and in late autumn it can be transported to an apartment. There are mini-sunflowers, they are very small, only 30-50 cm tall. The Marily Johnson variety will bloom in a small pot, barely reaching 25 cm. In the ground, it will grow taller, and the inflorescences will be up to 20 cm in diameter.

Elf belongs to miniature sunflowers. A compact branching bush 40 cm high is covered with fluffy semi-double flowers with a yellow center. The sunflower is small, and the flowers are large - up to 10 cm in diameter. The Sundance Kid has flowers like fluffy baby pom-poms. They can be pure yellow or two-tone, with a bronze tint. Mini sunflowers work well with other flowers. Each year, the compositions can be changed, fantasizing with the color and growth of the plants. Imagine how beautiful a golden sunflower looks in combination with blue ageratum or blue lobelia. The whole company blooms for a very long time and will delight until frost. A sunny island of sunflowers and red velvet flowers will make you forget about the bygone summer. A flowerbed with a yellow sunflower and fiery red salvia looks solemn. You should not give up tall varieties either. Powerful stately handsome sunflowers up to 2 m high are plants of the second and even third plan. It is interesting to collect a whole collection of different colors.

Sunbeam and Moonbright varieties grow up to 180 cm. Sunbeam petals are colored golden, and its core is yellow-green. The Moonbright variety has a light corolla with lemon honey and a dark brown center. Sunrich Lemon and Sunrich Orange flourish earlier than others. Within two months after sowing, they grow up to 1.5 m and bloom bright yellow, very decorative flowers. These varieties are classic sunflowers, but thanks to the dark, almost black center, they look much more spectacular.

Unusual light lemon petals are found in Valentine, Italia White and Vanilla Ice varieties. Variety Valentine dissolves inflorescences up to 15 cm in diameter. The bush is highly branched and stands well in the cut. Among the large sunflowers, there are also terry varieties. Lions Mail, Giant Sangold Golden Pheasant are distinguished by their impressive growth - up to 180 cm and luxurious golden inflorescences. Lush terry hats up to 18 cm in size are not inferior to exquisite dahlias and chrysanthemums. High varieties are good in combination with blue delphinium, blue aconite, burgundy tailed amaranth. Plant rudbeckia and helenium next to it for a sunny, bright tone-on-tone composition. Of particular note are sunflowers with red and burgundy petals. They seem to have been in the sun a little more and got a bronze-golden tan.

Of the medium-sized varieties, the Prado Red variety is interesting. The height of its stem is 120 cm. It is good because it does not produce pollen, and flowers up to 15 cm in diameter are ruby-colored. Very Bright Sunflower - Ring of Fire. The color of the petals goes from burgundy to yellow, like tongues of flame, they diverge from the dark brown center. Velvet Queen is brown-orange in color, and the shade of the flowers changes over time. An interesting color in the Chianti variety, the flowers are burgundy, with a yellow speck, as if the bright glare of the sun froze on them. Even the stem has a purple honeydew, it branches and reaches 150 cm. The most valuable thing is that Chianti blooms all summer. "Sunset" - this is how the name of the Sunset variety is translated.

The color of the sunflower is quite consistent with the name, restrained red, with gleams of yellow at the ends. The Evening Sun variety is a real giant. The plant can grow up to 3 m, the inflorescences are large, 20-25 cm. Its flowers are red, with a dark burgundy rim closer to the center. Indian Blanket also has bicolor petals. It does not give pollen, its flowers are semi-double, they look very magnificent. The conversation about varieties can go on for a long time. Let's talk about how to grow all this splendor in our country house, you can't say otherwise, the appearance of the garden changes so unrecognizably when sunflowers bloom - bright, sunny flowers. A sunflower feels good on any soil, but on fertile land it simply amazes with its powerful, irrepressible growth. If you want to captivate your children with floriculture, you will not find a better flower for experimenting. In mid-May, plant the seeds in the ground, deepen them 2-3 cm and water. They will sprout in a week. At first, weeding is needed, then the sunflower will leave the weeds far below, they are not a hindrance to him. You will loosen and feed - you will get excellent results. Just do not get carried away with nitrogen fertilizers, otherwise the sunflower will grow up and to the sides, and the flowers will open only by autumn. Large sunflowers need to be tied up, heavy heads and large leaves can drop the bush. It is important to remove the inflorescences in time, in which the seeds are tied, they take a lot of energy from the plant, and the young buds will not have time to open.

To achieve flowering earlier, seeds are planted a month before planting in the ground, in separate small pots. This is especially true for two-color and terry varieties. If you have already planted sunflowers in the ground, but frosts are expected, cover the seedlings with spunbond, this will not hurt. In rainy summers, powdery mildew affects sunflowers. At the same time, flowering almost does not suffer, only the decorativeness of the plant is lost - there is a white bloom on the leaves, they dry and fall off. To prevent powdery mildew, you can spray the bushes with infusion of fresh mullein once a week. Large sunflowers are sometimes planted along the edge of the plot, they perfectly replace hedges. From sunflowers of different sizes, you can create a separate flower bed. Baby sunflowers will cover the stems of taller fellows from below.

Plant the sunflower more spaciously in the beds and flower beds, with a distance of 30-50 cm between the plants. The more space around the flower, the more luxuriant the bush will grow, the more buds there will be. At the same time, branching varieties are planted more often in order to get a high stem cut. Most sunflower species are annuals. In central Russia, only Jerusalem artichoke is grown from perennials. Due to their exceptional unpretentiousness, rapid growth and bright colors, sunflowers return their lost popularity and win the hearts of flower growers. Sunflower is a flower of good mood. Collect a collection of different sunflowers. There are always new items in stores.


Popular types and varieties of helenium

In culture, these five most popular types of helenium are grown.

1. Gelenium Bigelow (Helenium bigelovii) is the least common cultivated species, blooming in June-July. Its straight stems reach a height of 80 cm, leaves are lanceolate, whole. Inflorescences up to 6 cm in diameter, tubular flowers are brown, ligulate yellow.

2. Helenium spring (Helenium vernalis) - straight stems reach a meter in height,
leaves are whole, lanceolate. Inflorescences up to 7 cm in diameter, ligulate flowers of orange color, tubular brown. Blooms from mid-May, about a month.

3. Gelenium Gupesa (Helenium hoopesii) - up to 90 cm high, whole lanceolate leaves of a grayish-green hue. Peduncles are long, single yellow inflorescences up to 8-9 cm in diameter. Blooms in June-July.

4. Autumn helenium (Helenium autumnale) is the most popular species that has become widespread in culture and has become the basis for the development of many varieties. Forms high (up to 160 cm) strong woody stems. The leaves are small, with a jagged edge. Baskets 3-5 cm in diameter, collected in corymbose inflorescences up to 30 cm in diameter. The ligulate flowers are yellow or reddish, and the tubular flowers are darker yellow. Blooms in July-September for two months.

5. Helenium hybrid (Helenium x hybridum) - includes forms of uncertain origin. The initial species in hybrid representatives is autumn helenium.

Of the varieties of helenium in demand in culture, of particular interest are:
- "Rubinzverg" ("Ruby Gnome") is a very popular variety with a dense bush about 65 cm high, with red ruby-colored baskets. This red helenium blooms from the end of July.
- "Cockade" - the height of the bush is up to 120 cm, baskets with a diameter of 4.5 cm. The ligulate flowers are red with a brown tint, the edges of the petals are yellowish, but towards the center the red pigment intensifies, the tubular flowers are yellow-brown. Blooms from early August for one and a half months.
- "Moerheim Beauty" is one of the most popular varieties of helenium. Dissolving, its baskets have different shades (red, yellow, golden, copper), and in full dissolution they turn red-brown. The height of the bush (90-120 cm) depends on the composition of the soil. Blooms from July to November.

In flower beds, geleniums are perfectly combined with plants that have flowers of a contrasting color: blue ageratums and sage, purple phlox, blue veronica and clematis, etc. Low-growing varieties of helenium perfectly decorate an alpine hill.
Cutting helenium is a bright element of phytocompositions.

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Watch the video: Гелениум гибридный Моерхеим Бьюти. Краткий обзор, описание характеристик helenium Moerheim Beauty