The Areca plant belongs to the Palm family. This genus unites more than 40 species, which can be found in nature in the humid undergrowth of tropical regions of Asia from the Solomon Islands, the Philippines and New Guinea to India and Sri Lanka. This genus has a typical species - areca catechu, or betel palm. Under natural conditions, the species can be found in southern China, Southeast and South Asia, East Africa and Western Oceania. And this species is grown throughout the entire tropical zone to obtain its seeds, which have a narcotic effect: for a start, the seeds are wrapped in betel leaves, and then they are chewed. The seeds contain the alkaloid arecoline, it is used in official medicine to reduce intraocular pressure. It is also used in veterinary medicine as a laxative and anthelmintic. Arecoline bromohydrate is used in the treatment of rheumatism in ungulates. The pigment contained in the seeds of this plant is used to dye cotton products in red and terracotta colors.
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom... It is cultivated as a decorative deciduous large-sized plant.
- Illumination... It needs bright sunlight, but in the afternoon, the bush needs to be shaded from the direct rays of the sun.
- Temperature regime... In the summertime - from 25 to 35 degrees, and in winter - about 15 degrees.
- Watering... The soil mixture in the pot is moistened after its surface dries to a depth of 30 to 40 mm.
- Air humidity... In the cold season, when there are working heating devices in the room, the foliage must be systematically moistened from the sprayer.
- Fertilizer... Areca is fed from April to August once every 15 days, using a complex mineral fertilizer for palms. It is also systematically recommended to carry out top dressing on the sheet, using a solution of trace elements for this.
- Dormant period... Not pronounced, but in winter the palm grows and develops very slowly.
- Transfer... While the bush is young, it is subjected to this procedure regularly once a year, and older plants are transplanted about 1 time in 3 years. Very large and old bushes are not replanted; instead, the top layer of potting soil is replaced every year.
- Reproduction... By dividing the bush and by seed method.
- Harmful insects... Mealybugs, scale insects, spider mites and whiteflies.
- Diseases... Root rot. Areca can lose its decorative effect due to improper care or if suitable conditions for normal growth and development have not been created for it.
Features of the Areca palm
Areca stems, as a rule, are thin with a cylinder of tubular sheaths. The foliage of such a plant is pinnately dissected. During flowering, an inflorescence-ear appears, its upper part consists of male staminate flowers, and the lower part consists of female pistillate flowers. The fruit is a fibrous berry with seeds inside.
Areca palms at home
Areca palm care at home
Areca palm is a highly decorative plant that is large in size. If you decide to grow such a palm tree, then you should take into account that when it grows up, it will need a fairly spacious room. However, while the bush is young, it can be grown in an ordinary apartment.
Areca needs bright sunlight, while the direct rays of the sun do not harm her. In this regard, if necessary, it can be placed near the windows of the south orientation. However, in the summer months at noon (from 11 to 15 hours), the bush must be shaded from the scorching direct rays of the sun. If the bush is young, then it also needs to be protected from direct sunlight, otherwise its foliage begins to curl, and burns form on its surface, and it can also turn yellow and fly around.
Although this palm tree belongs to light-loving plants, it can be grown at any age by placing it next to the northern window, where the lighting is rather scarce. In order for the bush to be symmetrical, do not forget to rotate it 180 degrees around its axis every half a month.
The palm tree grows best at an air temperature of 30 to 35 degrees, while the temperature of the soil mixture in the pot should be from 21 to 27 degrees. You should know that such a plant can withstand a two-week heat up to 65 degrees. An adult bush is able to withstand a short drop in temperature to minus 6 degrees, but its foliage will suffer even at temperatures below 0 degrees. If the palm tree stays in the cold for a long time (about 0 degrees), then because of this, it can be severely damaged or even die.
Areca grows and develops normally at the same air humidity, which is typical for living rooms. But in the winter, working heating devices dry up the air, which can damage the decorativeness of the palm tree: foliage shrinks, and its tips dry out. To avoid this, it is recommended to systematically moisten the bush from a sprayer in the cold season.
It is necessary to moisten the soil mixture in the pot only after the top layer dries out a few centimeters deep. If you water the palm more often, then this can cause rotting of the root system. Since this plant reacts extremely negatively to chlorine, it can only be watered with well-settled water (for at least 24 hours). You can also use filtered water, but rainwater is best for irrigation. Some time after the substrate in the pot has been moistened, be sure to drain the liquid accumulated in the pan.
The indoor areca should be fed regularly. This is done in the period from April to August 1 time in 15 days, and for this it is recommended to use a complex mineral fertilizer for palms. In addition to root, the plant sometimes needs to arrange foliar dressing, for this the foliage is sprayed with a fertilizer solution.
Injured or dead leafy ones need to be cut off, but they do this only after the leaf petiole is thoroughly dry. You also need to cut off those leaves that are strongly bent down (below the plane on which the container with the palm tree stands). You should also promptly remove the growing lateral shoots, otherwise the main stem may stop growing.
The palm is transplanted only if necessary after its root system becomes very cramped in the pot. You can understand this by looking at the drainage holes at the bottom of the pot, if the roots hang from them, then it's time to transplant the bush. On average, young palms are transplanted every year, and adults - once every 3 years. Arecs that are too large or very old are not transplanted, they simply have to carefully replace the top layer of the substrate every year in a container about 50 mm thick.
The plant is transplanted in April, when it is just beginning to grow actively. The transplant is carried out by transferring the bush from an old container to a new one, while trying not to destroy the lump of earth that is taken along with the root system. Remember that the new pot should be 50 mm larger than the old one. Suitable soil mixture: well-drained, loose, slightly acidic (pH 6.0-7.8) or neutral. If the composition of the substrate is correct, then water should pass through it in a matter of seconds. In order to make a soil mixture with your own hands, combine humus, coarse sand, leafy and soddy soil in a ratio of 1: 1: 2: 4. If desired, ready-made soil mixture for palm trees can be bought in a specialized store.
A thick drainage layer is made at the bottom of the container; for this, you can use pieces of ceramics or expanded clay. Gently transfer the palm tree into a new container, while trying to keep the clod of earth intact. The bush is installed strictly in the center of the container and the free space is filled with fresh earth mixture. After the areca is transplanted, pay attention to its root collar, it should be at the same level as in the old container. The transplanted bush needs watering, and for the first 7 days it must be shaded from direct sunlight.
If during transplantation you find that there is rot on the root system, then it is completely cleaned of soil mixture and all affected areas and dried roots are cut out. Places of cuts need to be sprinkled with crushed charcoal, only after that the palm tree is planted in a new container, which is filled with fresh earth mixture.
transplanting palm trees. FEATURES OF PALM CARE
Growing from seeds
Before sowing areca seeds in the substrate, they are placed in a sulfuric acid solution for 10 minutes. After that, they need to be rinsed well under running water. Fill the cups 2/3 of the seedling soil mixture and plant one seed in each of them to a depth of about 20 mm. The containers are covered from above with a film (glass) and transferred to a well-lit and warm place (from 27 to 30 degrees). If everything is done correctly, then the first seedlings should appear after 1.5-2 months. But if the crops are in a cooler place, then the seedlings will appear later.
Seedlings grow in partial shade, and when their first true leaf plate forms, they are transplanted into pots. Young plants grown from seeds need regular feeding with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer (for 1 bucket of water 5 grams), it should be added to the soil mixture at intervals of 1 every 3 months. The approximate ratio of elements in the fertilizer used: N: P: K = 19: 6: 12.
Dividing the bush
You can divide a bush only if it has several trunks. Remove the palm tree from the old container and shake it well, as a result, as little substrate as possible should remain on the root system, remove the rest of the earth with your hands. Cut the bush into several parts and immediately plant the cuttings in separate pots, at the bottom of which a drainage layer is made, and on top it is covered with a layer of sterile earth mixture consisting of leaf humus, perlite and sod soil (2: 2: 1). Delenki are well watered and transferred to a place that is reliably protected from drafts and direct sunlight. At this time, the delenki need high humidity and coolness (from 20 to 25 degrees). If everything is done correctly, then after half a month they take root. If rooting is successful, then the foliage of the Areca will restore turgor, immediately after that the bushes should be fed with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer in half the dose recommended by the manufacturer (see the instructions on the package).
Areca palm: plant care after winter
Diseases and pests
Areca can only get sick with root rot, the development of which is facilitated by too frequent watering. You can understand that a palm tree is sick by the following signs: the bush withers, and brownish-red spots form on the surface of its foliage, which over time increase in size and merge with each other. As soon as such symptoms are found, the plant should be treated as soon as possible with a solution of a fungicide, for example, Discor. If necessary, repeat spraying after 1–1.5 weeks. During the time that the treatment is being carried out, it is impossible to spray the foliage with water or wipe it with a damp sponge.
The palm tree is highly resistant to viruses and bacteria, but problems can arise with it if it is not properly cared for or if it is grown in the wrong conditions. For instance:
- The leaves become curly and orange specks appear on them if there is too little potassium in the soil mixture.
- With a lack of nitrogen, the growth of the bush becomes very slow, and the color of its leaves turns pale.
- The yellowing of the foliage is due to the fact that the palm is very rarely or too poorly watered.
- Dry spots of light color that appear on the foliage are sunburn.
- If the room is too cold, the foliage will darken and wilt.
- When the tips of the leaf plates begin to dry, this means that the air in the room is excessively dry.
- Brown and dying bottom plates are a natural process, so there is no need to worry because it happens with all old leaves.
Mealybugs, spider mites, whiteflies and scale insects can settle on such a palm tree. If you find a white waxy coating on the foliage that looks like cotton wool, this means that mealybugs have settled on the bush. These sucking pests feed on plant sap, as a result of which the areca is greatly weakened, and its growth and development are delayed. Insects are removed by hand using a cotton swab moistened with alcohol or soap solution. Then the bush is sprayed with an insecticidal solution.
Scabbards - also suck the juice from the plant, while they prefer to hide in the leaf axils and on the seamy surface of the leaves. In those areas where there are bites, specks of yellow or brown are formed, while the tissue around them begins to gradually die off. In order to get rid of such a pest, the bush is sprayed with an insecticidal preparation. However, before processing, remove adult insects from the plant by hand, because they are covered with a dense protective shell, and therefore they are not afraid of pesticides.
Whiteflies are small white moths similar in appearance to moths. They prefer to hide on the seamy surface of the foliage, if you shake the bush, then the moths will quickly scatter in different directions. On foliage damaged by such a pest, yellow specks form, and it begins to curl. Also, on the surface of the leaf plates, whitefly excrement can be found, which is a sugar bloom, on which a sooty fungus can settle. You can get rid of the moth with the help of insecticidal preparations.
Spider mites settle on a palm tree if the air in the room is very dry. They are also sucking insects that suck sap from the bush. In areas where there are punctures, dots appear of a pale yellow or light color. You can also understand that this pest has settled on a plant by a thin cobweb on the seamy surface of the foliage. Spider mites are dangerous in that their presence is difficult to notice, and they also multiply rapidly. To exterminate them, areca is treated with a special acaricide.
Most often, in the fight against harmful insects, flower growers use insecticidal acaricidal agents such as: Akarin, Fitoverm, Aktellik and Aktaru, as they can destroy any pest. But remember that these drugs contain poisons that are just as dangerous to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to spray the bush with them in the fresh air and do not forget to observe protective measures.
Areca species and varieties
The types of areca that are most popular with flower growers will be described below.
Originally view from the Indian peninsula of Malacca. The height of a palm tree is about 300 cm, it has several trunks, each of which reaches no more than 50 mm in diameter. The surface of the trunk is covered with annular scars. The length of straight pinnate leaf plates is about one and a half meters, they include leaflets, the width of which is not more than 35 mm, and the length is from 0.5 to 0.9 m.Fragrant flowers are white. Fruit length is about 25 mm. This very spectacular palm is cultivated in warm rooms.
Areca catechu, or betel nut
This single-stemmed palm is native to the Malay Peninsula and the Malay Archipelago, which are located in eastern India. The height of the trunk, covered with ring-shaped scars, is about 25 meters, while in diameter it reaches only 5-12 centimeters. Cirrus leaf plates of an arcuate-curved shape have a length of about 1.8 meters. They consist of densely spaced leaves, which are about 3 centimeters wide and 45 centimeters long. In the leaf axils, inflorescences are formed, having a length of about 0.6 m, they include white fragrant flowers. Yellowish-red seeds form inside the fruit.
Areca yellowing (Areca lutescens)
Or yellowing dipsis, or yellowing chrysalidocarpus. The native land of the species is Malaysia. The height of a thin straight stem, covered with annular scars, is about 10 meters. Arcuate-curved pinnate leaf plates reach about 150 cm in length. They include leaves about 3 centimeters wide and up to 35 centimeters long, which are very densely located.
Palm tree areca or betel. Care and reproduction of the areca palm tree at home
Arrowroot: caring for a "praying" plant at home
Large bright leaves with a bizarre pattern of spots and veins - by these signs you can recognize the tropical plant arrowroot. A native of the tropical swamps of America, she easily adapted to home conditions. With proper care, the plant will always delight the eye of the grower.
What does beloperone look like?
Beloperone is a genus of plants belonging to the Acanthaceae family. Although some scientists believe that it makes no sense to separate its representatives into a separate genus, since there are practically no differences with the genus Justicia. In old books, whiteperone is sometimes found under the name "Jacobinia".
Beloperone is an abundantly flowering plant with a very interesting bracts shape
Currently, about 60 different species of beloperone have been described. Most of them are native to the humid tropical and subtropical forests of South and Central America. The name of the flower is a combination of two Greek words - belos (arrow) and perone (point). Accordingly, whiteperone is an “arrowhead”. Most likely, the plant owes this name to the anther binder, which has a similar shape.
Beloperone is a fairly intensively branching shrub or subshrub. Shoots are rather thin, in some species they are slightly pubescent. As the plant matures at the base, they lignify, but not completely.
The leaves are rather small, 5–8 cm long, dull green or olive. The shape is lanceolate or ovoid. Light edge is within the norm.
The main advantage of beloperone in the eyes of indoor plant lovers is its almost continuous flowering. On average, it lasts about 10 months with a break for the coldest time of the year. Flowers appear in the leaf axils. Most often they are painted in bright yellow, orange, scarlet, but there are also snow-white and pink ones. Shades smoothly flow into each other, creating a unique play of colors. Single flowers are rare, for beloperone inflorescences in the form of a half-umbrella are more characteristic. They also look like hop cones, which is why the plant is also known as "home" or "indoor hops". There are also more poetic nicknames - "Mexican beauty", "shrimp flower".
The shape of the bracts has provided the beloperone with several nicknames.
What are considered petals are actually bracts. At the base, they are pale salad, then the shade inherent in the species gains intensity. The flowers themselves are located between them. They are small, white or creamy, so they are almost invisible. The length of the bracts reaches 12-15 cm. They hang down, practically covering the flowers. The latter do not last long, falling within 3-4 days, so their appearance is easy to miss.
Beloperone flowers, unlike bracts, fade very quickly, literally in 2-3 days
At home, beloperone grows up to 1–1.2 m in height. The length of the shoots is about 70–80 cm. It grows very quickly.
By lovers of indoor plants, beloperone is appreciated for the duration and abundance of flowering.
Beloperone not only decorates the interior, the plant also brings tangible benefits to the owner. It saturates the air in the room with oxygen and air ions, increases its humidity, promotes sound absorption and creates healthy electrostatics.
Beloperone is often confused with other representatives of the Acanthus family - aphelandra and pachistachis. Growing afelandra will require significant efforts aimed at creating an optimal microclimate and fulfilling the "whims" of the plant. Pachistakhis is the most unpretentious of all of the above.
Pachistachis, unlike Afelandra, is quite easy to confuse with Beloperone the most obvious difference - vertically "standing", and not drooping bracts
Video: appearance of beloperone
The work on the adaptation of the areca to our climatic conditions led to the identification of 4 palm species capable of living and developing in them: yellowish chrysalidocarpus, madagascar chrysalidocarpus, areca catechu, three-stalked areca.
Chrysalidocarpus yellowish (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens)
Chrysalidocarpus yellowish, or yellowing dipsis is a palm tree up to 10 meters high. The original homeland of the plant is Malaysia, but today it is found in the Comoros and Madagascar. A distinctive feature of this species of Arekovs lies in the color of the leaves: they are yellow with black dots in the form of an arc. In indoor cultivation, chrysalidocarpus lutescens looks like a short bushy plant with dense foliage.
Areca Madagascar, or Chrysalidocarpus madagascariensis
The generic name of the plant - chrysalidocarpus - comes from the Greek language and is translated as "golden fruit", where chryseus - "golden", karpos - "fruit". The stems end in numerous leafy cuttings, on which feathery leaves are formed, consisting of 40-60 pairs of elongated lanceolate leaflets. They form a lush crown of the plant.
Interesting! In nature, the areca grows up to 9-10 meters.
Areca catechu palm
The largest representative of the genus, the stems of which stretch up to 20-25 meters in height. The original habitat is East India and the Malacca Peninsula. When foliage falls on the stems of the plant, ring-shaped scars remain, giving its stems an original look. Leaf plates grow in nature up to 2 meters. Their base is composed of long, up to 60 cm, but not wide (up to 3 cm) leaves.
Areca catechu blooms with small white flowers with a pleasant aroma. From them, fruits are formed, called the nut nut, which is why the plant received another name - the battel palm. At home, the height of a palm tree does not exceed 3 meters.
Areca three-stalked palm
The double-barreled three-stalked areca (Areca triandra) came to us from the Malacca Peninsula. At the tops of the stems, feathery leaves, one and a half meter long, are formed. Divided into leaves 50–90 cm long and 3.5 cm wide, they form a dense cap. Long inflorescences (up to 1 m) are collected from white flowers with a delicate lemon scent.