Diseases and pests of beets
In the initial period of development, damage to the still immature seedlings by various pests is a great danger to beets. Malignant pests of beets: weevils and larvae of miner flies, beet fleas, which must be fought.
Beet aphid can reproduce on many vegetable plants. The main hosts of aphids are viburnum, jasmine, bird cherry, on which its eggs hibernate. Reproduction of aphids is regulated by numerous predators and parasites: ladybirds, some beetles, predatory bugs, lacewing, larvae of some hoverflies. Some unfavorable weather conditions can also prevent aphids from breeding. For example, heavy rainfall will wash it off the plants, causing a large number of aphids to die.
Beet root aphid inhabits all plants of the swan family. On the affected plants, the leaves turn yellow, the plant withers, and its development is suspended. Severely damaged plants are easily removed from the soil, often the roots rot. The most characteristic sign of beet root aphid damage is the presence on the roots and in the soil around the plant of a white moldy coating, which is formed from the skins discarded during the molting of the aphid and the secretions of its special glands.
Beet flea. Small beetles 1–2 mm long are black with a greenish or bronze tint. Beetles overwinter under plant debris in ditches, on roadsides, in bushes. They appear in spring and, being highly voracious, damage seedlings and young plants, which can cause the death of plants in large areas.
Common beet weevil. Weevils up to 1.5 cm long are black, densely covered with whitish-gray scales. The beetle hibernates in the soil at a depth of 12–30 cm, mainly in those areas where beets were grown. At first, they feed on swans and other weeds, and then, when beet shoots appear, they move on to it, causing great harm to it. Damage to plants in the earliest period of their development is especially dangerous. The beetles eat the cotyledon leaves, bite the stems, and sometimes damage the shoots that have not yet emerged on the soil surface. Seedlings are greatly thinned out, and sometimes crops are completely destroyed. The gluttony of beetles is especially great in the early and dry spring. The larvae (white, legless, curved, about 3 cm long) feed on beet roots. In this case, young plants with no more than 4–6 leaves die. More developed plants lag behind in growth, wither, root crops acquire an ugly shape. In frosty winters, the weevil dies, a rainy and cool summer contributes to the appearance of diseases caused by fungi and bacteria in larvae and pupae. The fight against him must be carried out constantly.
Beet miner fly. The adult insect is an ash-gray fly 6–8 mm long. The pupated larvae overwinter in the soil in those places where the pest lived. The flies that flew out in spring lay eggs, from which larvae hatch in 2–5 days and, penetrating into the leaf tissue, they feed on it, making them inside the cavity. Bubble-like swellings are formed - mines, inside of which there are larvae. Damaged leaves wither, turn yellow and gradually die off. Damage is especially dangerous for young plants in the forks or 1-2 pairs of true leaves. When populated by larvae, such plants usually die. In more developed plants, the weight of root crops decreases. During the summer, the insect gives up to three generations.
Beet nematode. This pest, which is a filamentous worm (the female has a lemon-shaped form), causes stunted growth in plants, wilting, yellowing of leaves and even death of plants. Infected roots are highly branched, take on a bearded appearance, the weight of the roots is reduced. The crop shortfall can be up to 60%. Nematoda gives in the conditions of the Moscow region up to 2 generations. In addition to beets, it lives on haze and cruciferous plants.
Diseases of beets
Korneed. Disease of beet seedlings caused by the development of pathogenic microorganisms, the presence of unfavorable conditions for the development of seedlings and low seed quality. The first signs of the disease are observed in seedlings on the hypocotal knee or root. A constriction forms on the stalk of a young plant, the root darkens and rots. Cotyledons and true leaves stick and turn yellow, such seedlings often die. Some of the plants affected by the rootworm die before reaching the soil surface. This leads to plant thinning, sometimes so strong that reseeding is required. Plants that have had a root-eater, if they recover, develop more slowly, give a lower yield (up to 40%), during storage such root crops rot in the first place.
Cercosporosis. In the tissues of the leaves of the affected plants, the fungus develops mycelium, which thickens with age, becomes olive-brown, and clusters in the form of tufts form under the leaf skin, from which the infection spreads to other plants. In wet weather, a grayish bloom is visible in the spot area, formed by fungal spores. Numerous spots lead to the death of leaves, starting with the largest, extreme ones. Cercosporosis is one of the most harmful diseases of beets. The causative agent of the disease hibernates in infected plant debris. Seeds can also be sources of infection. In addition to beets, infections are susceptible to: alfalfa, peas, soybeans, potatoes, and from weeds - quinoa, mallow, sow thistle, bindweed, sorrel, dandelion.
Peronosporosis (downy mildew). Affected leaves stand out with a lighter color, their growth slows down, the plates thicken, curl upside down, become fragile. A rather dense grayish-purple bloom appears on the underside, consisting of sporulation of the fungus. The same plaque occurs on the glomeruli of seeds. The dying off of leaves dramatically reduces the size and quality of the crop. Root crops are poorly stored.
Fomoz. On the roots of beets, with a lack of boron in the soil, phomosis manifests itself in the form of dry rot. The fungus attacks the weakened parts of the root, mainly the lateral bulges of the neck, causing dark spots. The root tissue rots, becomes dry, rotten. The most dangerous type of disease is root-eating and, as a consequence, lump rot. On adult beets, phomosis is commonly known as zonal spotting. The fungus, affecting weakened, most often old leaves, causes the appearance of large light brown spots with pronounced zoning and dark dots, which are an additional source of infection. During storage, roots with signs of dry rot decompose quickly, forming foci of infection. The mushroom hibernates on plant debris, in root crops during storage, the disease is transmitted with seeds, after sowing which, a root-eater develops on the seedlings.
Rope rot. Beet rotting during storage can be caused by up to 150 types of mushrooms. In most cases, root crops affected by kagatny rot are gray, brown, almost black. The strength of the tissues is lost. The rot can be dry, and if bacteria are actively involved in the decay process, the affected roots become licky, and the rot takes on a wet character. The roots of plants that have been ill with cercosporosis, peronosporosis and other diseases are poorly resistant to clump rot. Higher doses of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers increase disease resistance. Roots that have grafted and injured during harvesting are more strongly affected by clump rot.
- sowing beets at a distance from plants - intermediate hosts of pests and diseases;
- mowing all weeds on the sides of roads, ditches, in untreated areas;
- observance of the rules of crop rotation: sowing wheat, rye, barley, vetch, clover, chicory on the areas affected by the nematode; deep early tillage in autumn;
- liming the soil;
- the introduction of a sufficient amount of organic and mineral fertilizers, double and triple doses of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers for sugar beet crops;
- growing disease resistant varieties;
- carrying out all agricultural activities that contribute to the rapid growth and development of seedlings (preservation of moisture in the soil, sowing with seeds of high sowing conditions, calibration and sowing of large seeds, optimal sowing time on well-cultivated soil, top dressing with the addition of boric fertilizers, etc.);
- careful processing of row spacings;
- destruction of weeds, especially from the swan family;
- removal of beet leaves affected by a miner fly during weeding with the removal of weeds from the site;
- protection of root crops during harvesting from wilting;
- protection of beet roots from mechanical damage;
- protection of roots from freezing;
- careful bulkhead of root crops before storing;
- compliance with the storage regime;
- cleaning from the site and burning plant residues.
candidate of agricultural sciences
Beet protection against diseases and pests
Beetroot is a useful root vegetable that has found its place in every area. She is very unpretentious and, it would seem, does not suffer so much from pests, but still they are. Even when stored, diseases can damage beet roots. The most important way of protection is the timely detection of a disease or pest and their immediate destruction.
Small bugs with a bronze or green tint that can jump. Their larvae are whitish with a brown head. Signs: translucent holes appear on the leaves, the edges of which gradually turn brown. Plant growth is delayed.
Ash processing wet sheets 3 times with an interval of 4-5 days, if there is a lot of pests, then the ash is mixed with tobacco dust. After such processing, the leaves cannot be eaten. Spraying with insecticides Actellik, Engio, Decis Profi, Proteus, Knockout, Anticolorad, Fas, Connect.
Small brown butterfly. It lays eggs on the cuttings of the leaves, then the larvae hatch from them, which penetrate into the root crop, gnaw out passages in it. Signs: the dying off of the leaf plates, the development of the root crop does not occur, the presence of characteristic passages in the beets.
After harvesting, the garden bed is treated with an insecticide (Fas, Decis Profi) and all tops are removed by spraying with organophosphorus compounds.
Small front sight 6-8 mm. grayish with a longitudinal stripe on the abdomen. The larva is pale yellow, without legs, with a pointed front part. Signs: places of damage on the leaves look like light spots through which small black grains are visible. The leaves wither, turn yellow and dry out.
Removing the affected leaves and treating the remaining with insecticide, loosen the soil in the garden and spill it with an ash solution. Aphids Small black, shiny or greenish bugs. They multiply very rapidly.
It can be root and leaf. In any case, it sucks the juices out of the plant. Signs: yellowing and curling of leaves, wilting, stunted development, the presence of moldy plaque on the root crop and the very ground around it.
Attract ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the site, treatment with soapy water (you can add tobacco dust), onion peel infusion, spraying with insecticide (Aktellik, Engio, Connect, Anticolorad, Fas).
A hidden pest in the form of a worm that lives in the soil and eats root crops. Signs: lagging in plant growth, wilting, yellowness of the leaves, sagging of leaves, the weight of the root crop decreases, the affected beets begin to branch.
autumn sowing of siderates, which will lure the pest to itself, then the top greens are mowed and destroyed, and the earth is dug deeply, seed dressing.
Small only 3-5 mm. the bug is able to eat 5 times more than it weighs itself. Signs: the leaves are covered with bubbles, the leaf curls and turns yellow at the edges, if the leaf is severely damaged, it turns black and falls off, deformation of the peduncle, a decrease in seed yield.
spray with karbofos, destruction of infected plants.
Beet weevil (elephant)
A pest beetle with a body length of up to 1.4 cm and a proboscis, the back of which is brown, and the abdomen is gray, there are dark hairs on the body. The larva is white. The beetle hibernates in the soil cover. It is the bugs that cause more harm, eating the young leaves of the beet.
Signs - gnawed edges of young leaves, gnawed stems and shoots, abnormal plant development, growth retardation.
Removal of weeds, timely irrigation and loosening of the soil, seed treatment before planting, spraying with insecticides (Gardener BT, ATO Zhuk, Bliskavka, Fas, Connect, Knockout, Calypso, Twix, Engio, Proteus, Zalp, Decis Profi, Aktellik).
Diseases of beets
Fungal disease most often occurs due to a lack of boron in the soil. Develops in high humidity. Signs: the leaves are covered with light spots, in the middle of which there are dark spots, the leaves and testes begin to die off, dry rot is observed on the roots.
introduction of boron into the ground, pre-planting seed treatment with a fungicide (Fundazol).
An outbreak of the disease occurs at the end of summer, when the weather becomes very rainy. Signs: small in size light gray spots with a red border, then a gray fluffy spore bloom appears on the back of the leaf in place of the spots, the leaves darken and disappear.
top dressing with any potash or full mineral fertilizer, destruction of affected plants, at the first symptoms, spray with Bordeaux mixture or other copper-containing preparations.
Peronosporosis (downy mildew)
This fungal disease affects young plants and the tops of the peduncles. Favorable conditions for the disease are damp and wet weather. Signs: a purple-gray bloom appears on the back of the leaves, the leaves curl upside down, become pale, dry out in hot weather, and rot when wet. Peduncles are bent, stop growing, die off. Affected roots rot during storage.
spraying plants with fungicides during the growing season, removing diseased plants and treating the remaining Bordeaux liquid.
The disease develops during storage of beets, which is caused by bacteria and fungi. Signs: mold or rot of any nature forms on the beets.
storing root crops in a dry, well-ventilated place, not causing injury when digging up, timely feeding and maintaining optimal soil moisture, storing only healthy root crops.
Prevention of the appearance of diseases and pests:
1. Autumn deep plowing
2. Do not plant sorrel near the beet bed
3. Cleaning from the site of all plant residues
4. Timely removal of weeds
5. No violation of storage measures and modes
7. Plant celery, garlic, dill, marigolds, pelargonium, yarrow, tansy between rows.
Pests and diseases cause significant damage to a significant amount of the crop, and sometimes everything. Take preventive measures, and your beet beds will delight you with an excellent harvest.
Techniques for growing tomato seedlings, feeding and caring for it
Growing tomato seedlings, this is what gardeners do as soon as the "spring smells".In what only seedlings are not grown - in peat tablets, in home-made containers, in "diapers", in sawdust. In the Krasnodar Territory, tomatoes are one of the leading vegetable crops. No wonder. Growing tomatoes is one of the main directions of the development of Kuban agriculture. Not a single private garden ...
Cercosporosis of beet
Hello dear friends!
I continue the story about diseases of root crops.
The topic of today's article is about what is beet cercospora and measures to combat this disease.
This is a fungal disease. The disease develops throughout the summer .. Leaves, stems and petioles are affected. Round or elongated small spots (2-3 millimeters) appear on the plants. The color of the spots is brownish yellow or dirty gray. When dry, the spots become pale, surrounded by a reddish-brown border.
Older, lower, larger leaves are most affected. Slightly depressed, oblong spots form on the stems and petioles, on which a grayish bloom is noticeable in warm, humid weather. If the lesion is very strong, then the leaves curl, darken and fall to the soil.
Productivity at cercosporosis beet decreases sharply.
Sources of infection are weeds susceptible to this disease, plant debris.
- Before planting, it is necessary to treat the seeds.
- In the phase of the beginning of growth, you need to spray the plants with fungicides. To do this, in 10 liters of water, you need to dilute 20 grams of the drug "HOM" (copper oxychloride) at the rate of 1 liter of solution per 10 square meters.
- With a formed root crop, the size of a walnut, a second spraying must be carried out. To do this, dissolve 50 grams of Bordeaux mixture in 10 liters of water.
- Timely removal of plant residues from the site - breeding grounds for various diseases.
I wish you a great healthy harvest! See you!
Pests and diseases that hinder the development of beets
Beets are an unpretentious garden crop that even inexperienced gardeners can grow. The main factor in reducing its yield is diseases and pests. The trouble is that it is almost impossible to identify some diseases of beets. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the current methods of plant protection, otherwise you can lose the crop.
Diseases of beets
These diseases can destroy most of the crop. Try to prevent them from occurring.
This fungal disease, the causative agent of which lives in the ground, causes lodging of seedlings. Plants become infected from the moment the seeds germinate until 2-4 pairs of true leaves appear. Diseased seedlings of beets grow poorly, since they do not develop lateral roots, and they rot.
Decay begins with the appearance of glassy or brown spots, or a brown strip located along the length of the root. Later, the lesion spreads to the top of the root.
In the open field, this disease can manifest itself with waterlogging of the soil and sudden changes in air temperature.
Control measures against root root seedlings:
2. Soaking seeds in an aqueous solution of superphosphate (1:40), germination and drying.
3. Sowing only quality seeds. It is better to use single-sprout, pelleted seeds.
4. Disinfection of the soil before sowing with a hot solution of crimson potassium permanganate.
5. Selection of varieties and hybrids resistant to soil infection.
5. Timely seedling thinning and soil loosening.
6. Application of fertilizers to the aisles.
7. Destruction of weeds (in particular, quinoa).
If the plants could not be protected, diseased seedlings should be removed, and the remaining ones should be watered with a pink solution of potassium permanganate and fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer (100 g per square meter).
This is one of the most common fungal diseases that affects the aerial part of the plant and the root crop. Light brown spots with black dots - pycnidia appear on the leaves and stems. Spores are stored in these places. First, the lower (old) leaves are infected, and gradually the disease passes to the fruits: after laying them for storage, dry rot is found on their surface, and inside the beets turns black.
Measures to combat phomosis:
2. Timely weeding of beds and destruction of plant residues after harvest.
4. Bookmark only healthy root crops for storage.
5. Deep digging of the soil in the fall.
6. Cultivation of varieties resistant to phomosis (Bordeaux 237, One-sprout).
7. At the first signs of the disease, the beets should be fed with brown (3 g per square meter) and their leaves should be sprayed with a solution of boric acid (1/2 tsp per 10 l of water). In the next season, boric acid (3 g per square meter) should be added to the soil before sowing.